May 26, 2024
Home » Section 113 of Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) Act: Unpacking Its Ramifications on Counterterrorism, Civil Liberties, and Legal Integrity
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This article has been written by Ramanasubramanian, pursuing Law at Sastra Deemed University, Thanjavur.


The incorporation of Section 113 into the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) Act marks a pivotal milestone in India’s legal landscape, especially concerning offenses linked to terrorism. This in-depth exploration aims to dissect the multifaceted implications of Section 113 on counterterrorism strategies, civil liberties, and the overarching legal framework. Through meticulous analysis of its context, addressing pertinent concerns, probing potential motives, and delineating its implications, this article strives to provide a nuanced understanding of this contentious legislative provision.

Contextual Background:

The genesis of Section 113 can be traced to a significant gap within the Indian Penal Code (IPC) concerning provisions targeting “terrorist acts.” This legal void necessitated legislative intervention to fortify India’s legal arsenal against terrorism. However, the introduction of Section 113 raises eyebrows due to the comprehensive coverage of terrorist-related offenses already provided by the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), complicating the rationale behind its inclusion in the BNS Act.

Duplication Dilemma:

At the heart of the debate surrounding Section 113 lies the replication of definitions between the UAPA and BNS. This duplication raises legitimate concerns regarding redundancy, ambiguity, and the potential for misuse in law enforcement. The overlapping definitions not only confuse investigating agencies but also afford them discretionary powers in selecting the applicable legislation. Such ambiguity poses a risk of inconsistencies in legal proceedings, undermining the very essence of the rule of law.

Parliamentary Lacuna:

The passage of the BNS Act amid the suspension of a significant number of members of parliament casts a shadow over the legislative process. The absence of robust parliamentary deliberation deprives the legislation of crucial scrutiny, debate, and rationalization. This deficiency not only undermines democratic principles but also restricts stakeholders’ ability to question the necessity and ramifications of Section 113, leaving them with limited avenues for recourse.

Deciphering Motives:

Scrutinizing the motives behind the inclusion of Section 113 reveals two plausible interpretations, each with far-reaching implications. On one hand, it may symbolize an effort to streamline procedural aspects for investigating agencies dealing with terrorist acts. However, critics argue that amending the UAPA to address any deficiencies would have been a more judicious approach, preserving the integrity of existing legal frameworks.

Alternatively, Section 113 could be interpreted as a strategic move to mitigate potential misuse of the UAPA’s stringent provisions. By subjecting terrorist-related offenses to general law under the BNS, the government might aim to subject them to local state police procedures outlined therein. Nevertheless, the lack of transparent discourse and communication surrounding this legislative maneuver raises pertinent questions about governmental intent and accountability.

Navigating Implications:

In contemplating the implications of Section 113, stakeholders must navigate a complex terrain, balancing national security imperatives with the protection of civil liberties. While combating terrorism remains paramount, it must not come at the expense of fundamental rights and procedural fairness. Safeguarding against potential misuse of anti-terror laws necessitates robust accountability mechanisms, parliamentary oversight, public discourse, and adherence to the principles of the rule of law and due process.

Ensuring Accountability:

The onus lies on stakeholders to advocate for transparency, accountability, and democratic principles in the enforcement of Section 113. This entails fostering open dialogue, engaging in public scrutiny, and upholding the tenets of democratic governance. By holding the government accountable for its legislative actions, stakeholders can mitigate the risk of arbitrary enforcement and safeguard democratic values.


The inclusion of Section 113 in the BNS Act signifies a crucial milestone in India’s legal evolution, particularly concerning counterterrorism measures. However, the lack of parliamentary deliberation, transparency, and accountability surrounding its enactment raise legitimate concerns about its implications and underlying motives.

As India grapples with the complexities of security challenges, it must uphold the rule of law, protect civil liberties, and foster democratic values. This necessitates a concerted effort from policymakers, legal experts, civil society, and citizens to ensure that legislative measures strike the right balance between security imperatives and individual rights. By advocating for transparency, accountability, and democratic principles, India can effectively combat terrorism while upholding its democratic values and constitutional ethos.

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