June 23, 2024
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This article has been written by Aryan Gupta, RGNUL (Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law).


In an era marked by unprecedented technological advancements and a growing fascination with space exploration, the realm beyond our planet’s atmosphere has become a frontier ripe with possibilities. From the pioneering voyages of NASA to the groundbreaking initiatives of private space companies like SpaceX and Blue Origin, humanity’s quest to unravel the mysteries of the cosmos has entered a new chapter. However, amidst the excitement and promise of venturing into space, there lies a complex web of legal considerations and regulatory challenges that accompany such endeavors. In this research blog, we embark on a journey to explore the fascinating intersection of law and space exploration, delving into the realm of space law and its implications for the future of commercial space activities.

Space law encompasses a diverse array of legal principles and regulations governing activities beyond Earth’s atmosphere. Rooted in international treaties such as the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, space law establishes a framework for the peaceful and responsible exploration and utilization of outer space. This includes provisions regarding celestial bodies, space debris, satellite communication, and the rights and responsibilities of nations and private entities engaged in space activities. As commercial interest in space exploration continues to soar, the need for robust legal frameworks to address issues such as property rights, liability, and environmental protection becomes increasingly paramount. In the following sections, we will delve deeper into the intricacies of space law, examining its evolution, key principles, and current challenges in regulating commercial space ventures.


The legal framework for commercial space activities in India is governed by a combination of international treaties and domestic legislation. Internationally, India is a signatory to key agreements such as the Outer Space Treaty and the Moon Agreement, which provide the foundational principles for the exploration and use of outer space and celestial bodies.

The Outer Space Treaty, ratified by India in 1967, establishes that outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all states and prohibits the placement of nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in space. It also emphasizes the peaceful use of outer space and imposes responsibilities on states for their space activities, including liability for damage caused by their space objects.[1] Similarly, the Moon Agreement, which India ratified in 1982, extends the principles of the Outer Space Treaty specifically to the moon and other celestial bodies. It emphasizes the peaceful use of these bodies, prohibits their use for military purposes, and establishes that the moon’s resources are the common heritage of mankind, to be governed by an international regime when exploitation becomes feasible.[2]

Domestically, India is in the process of enacting the Space Activities Bill, 2017, which aims to regulate and promote space activities in the country. This legislation seeks to encourage participation from non-governmental and private sector agencies under the guidance of the government through the Department of Space. It provides for the issuance of non-transferable licenses for commercial space activities, establishes a register of space objects, and outlines safety requirements and procedures for conducting space activities. Additionally, existing policies such as the Satellite Communication Policy, 2000, and the Remote Sensing Data Policy, 2011, currently govern various aspects of space activities in India. However, the Space Activities Bill, once enacted, will provide a comprehensive legal framework to address the challenges and opportunities in the rapidly evolving space sector, promoting transparency, accountability, and sustainable growth in commercial space activities within the country. [3] [4]

At the global level, the governance of space activities is overseen by various international bodies, including the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) and its subcommittees. UNCOPUOS serves as the primary forum for the formulation of international space law and policy, promoting cooperation among member states in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes. For India, the Department of Space (DoS) plays a central role in governing space activities domestically. It formulates policies, regulates space exploration, and oversees the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), which conducts space research and satellite launches. Additionally, the Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center (IN-SPACe) has been established to further facilitate and regulate private sector participation in space activities.

Applying existing laws to commercial space ventures poses several challenges due to the dynamic nature of the space industry. Traditional legal frameworks may struggle to address novel issues such as private sector participation, property rights in space, liability for space debris, and intellectual property rights. Additionally, the international nature of space activities requires harmonization of laws across multiple jurisdictions. Regulatory uncertainty and gaps in jurisdiction further complicate legal compliance for commercial entities. As a result, adapting existing laws to accommodate the evolving landscape of commercial space ventures remains a significant challenge for policymakers and industry stakeholders alike.


In the global context, regulating commercial space exploration involves intricate legal frameworks overseen by international governing bodies. Licensing and Authorization Processes for Commercial Space Launches require adherence to safety, security, and environmental standards set by organizations like the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA). Space Traffic Management and Orbital Debris Mitigation demand collaboration among nations to monitor and mitigate risks, following guidelines from entities such as the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). [5]

Liability and Insurance Considerations for Space Activities involve navigating complex legal landscapes. International treaties like the Outer Space Treaty establish liability principles, while entities like the Hague International Space Resources Governance Working Group work on legal frameworks for resource extraction. Space insurance, managed by specialized insurers globally, covers risks from pre-launch to in-orbit phases, ensuring financial protection for satellite operators and launch service providers. [6]

In India, the ISRO serves as the primary regulatory and operational body, overseeing Licensing and Authorization Processes for Commercial Space Launches. It ensures compliance with national and international regulations, facilitating satellite launches for both domestic and foreign entities. Antrix Corporation Limited (ACL), ISRO’s commercial arm, manages contracts and launch agreements for foreign satellite launches from India, playing a crucial role in the country’s space industry. Space Traffic Management and Orbital Debris Mitigation in India require coordination between ISRO and relevant international bodies to monitor and mitigate risks posed by space debris. Liability and Insurance Considerations for Space Activities in India involve adherence to national laws and regulations, with the proposed Space Activities Bill 2017 aiming to establish rules for licensing, registration, and liability management. [7]

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in India’s space industry encompass laws and regulations governing ownership and protection of innovations and technologies. ISRO and ACL play essential roles in managing IPR related to space activities, ensuring fair use and protection of intellectual property in outer space ventures.

 Navigating the regulatory landscape for commercial space exploration involves balancing international cooperation, adherence to treaties and agreements, and evolving national legislation to foster a sustainable and responsible space industry.

Challenges in regulating commercial space exploration span from the complexities of international collaboration to the nuances of national legislation. Coordinating Licensing and Authorization Processes for Commercial Space Launches demands alignment with diverse regulatory frameworks across countries, often leading to bureaucratic hurdles and delays. Space Traffic Management and Orbital Debris Mitigation pose significant technical and logistical challenges, requiring robust tracking systems and coordinated efforts to avoid collisions and manage space debris effectively. Liability and Insurance Considerations for Space Activities entail navigating intricate legal landscapes, with varying liability regimes across jurisdictions and evolving insurance needs for emerging space ventures like space tourism. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in space activities face unique challenges related to jurisdictional issues, cross-border disputes, and the application of terrestrial laws to extraterrestrial activities. Balancing innovation, safety, and regulatory compliance remains a persistent challenge in shaping the future of commercial space exploration.


To advance the sustainable and orderly growth of commercial space exploration, several policy changes are essential.  An international regulatory body for space traffic management and debris mitigation that ensures uniform enforcement across jurisdictions of all the nations across the globe; comprehensive national legislation should be enacted for countries, such as about to happen in India with the Space Activities Bill, which defines property rights, licensing procedures, and liability framework for private space activities. Thirdly, it is to establish internationally agreed protocols on liability and insurance with regard to damages caused by space objects, which greatly reduce legal uncertainties for commercial actors. Fourth, it is therefore important that transparent policies are developed in relation to intellectual property rights in space; this will protect innovations in space and facilitate international cooperation. Finally, continuous international discussion at forums, including UNCOPUOS, must be encouraged in order to regularly update and harmonize space laws as a response to technological developments. It is only through such focused legal measures that the potential for securing and maintaining the commercial future of space exploration can be ensured.

[1] United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, “The Outer Space Treaty” (unoosa.org) <https://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/spacelaw/treaties/introouterspacetreaty.html> accessed March 22, 2024

[2] United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, “Moon Agreement” (unoosa.org) <https://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/spacelaw/treaties/intromoon-agreement.html> accessed March 24, 2024

[3] Drishti IAS, “Draft Space Activities Bill, 2017” (drishtiias.com, May 9, 2024) <https://www.drishtiias.com/pdf/1630837033-draft-space-activities-bill-2017.pdf> accessed March 24, 2024

[4] ISRO, “Satellite Communications Norms, Guidelines and Procedures” (ISRO 2011) <https://www.isro.gov.in/media_isro/pdf/satcom-ngp.pdf> accessed March 24, 2024

[5] Marchisio S, “National Jurisdiction for Regulating Space Activities ff Governmental and Non-Governmental Entities” (Thailand Workshop on Space Law 2010) https://www.unoosa.org/pdf/pres/2010/SLW2010/02-02.pdf> accessed March 25, 2024

[6] Aon Risk Solutions, “Insuring Space Activities” (Aon Risk Solutions 2016) <https://www.aon.com/russia/files/Insuring_Space_Activities_whitepaper.pdf> accessed March 25, 2024

[7] ANGELS, “Space Licensing in India – ANGELS” (ANGELS, November 17, 2019) <https://spacelaws.com/articles/space-licensing-in-india/> accessed March 26, 2024

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